Department of Environment and Conservation
Wheatbelt Woodlands

JH site WH16x, Wongan Hills Water Supply Reserve

Location of sites used in the classification of this community

Eucalyptus salmonophloia (Salmon Gum) Woodland


Salmon Gum over Scrub
Salmon Gum over Chenopod Scrub
Salmon Gum and Wandoo
Salmon Gum and Gimlet
Salmon Gum and York Gum
Salmon Gum over Melaleuca
Salmon Gum and Red Morrel
Salmon Gum over Mallee
Salmon Gum and Wheatbelt Wandoo
Salmon Gum on Dunes
Salmon Gum and Merrit

See the report by Harvey and Keighery for sub-communities recognised by Keighery (Appendix 1), Gibson et al. (Appendix 2) and Griffin (Appendix 3). Many of these correspond to the sub-communities presented here, as is shown in the right hand columns of the tables in the appendices, but there are some unusual groups that are not recognised in this classification.

Species Identification

Tree, to 25m. Bark smooth, silver grey in winter-spring, becoming salmon pink to coppery in summer-autumn. Flowers w hite, recorded in January, February, May, August to October. Fruit hemispherical, 3-7mm long. (For this and more information see EUCLIDBrooker & Kleinig; FloraBase; French.)

Similar Species
E. salmonophloia looks similar to E. salicola, both having salmon bark and similar form. However, E. salmonophloia is differentiated by having ovate to lanceolate petiolate juvenile leaves; globoid buds; versatile anthers; exerted valves in the fruit; and a non-saline habitat.

Soils and Landform

Red clay loam or clay, red sand, sand over clay often with gravel; granitic soils (in the west), calcareous and red loams (in the east). On plains & low hills; upper slopes (in the west) and broad valleys (in the east).

Associated Species

Eucalyptus salmonophloia often occurs with E. salubris, E. longicornis, E. wandoo and E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba.

Understorey species are many and varied and may include Acacia erinacea, Templetonia sulcata, Olearia muelleri, Melaleuca acuminata, Santalum acuminatum, Enchylaena lanata/tomentosa complex, Sclerolaena diacantha, Rhagodia drummondii, R. preissii, Maireana marginata, Austrostipa elegantissima, Austrodanthonia setacea group, Austrostipa trichophylla, Calandrinia calyptrata, Lomandra effusa, Crassula colorata, Trachymene cyanopetala and Calotis hispidula.  Yates et al. list Acacia hemiteles, Atriplex semibaccata, Mariana brevifolia and Melaleuca pauperiflora.

Number of Sites and Polygons

227 sites and 129 polygons

Average Species Richness

21.5 spp. per 100m(133 sites)

Reference Sites

Suggested by McQuoid
Brookton Hill, 3km W of Brookton
The cross roads at Lake Cronin, 55km E of Hyden, LH34 (burnt in 1996)
Boodarockin North Rd, 30km W of Bullfinch
Korrelocking Reserve, 10km E of Wyalkatchem WY07
Dundinin town reserve
Gwambygine Rd, 15km SE of York (road verge)
Outside Wheatbelt NRM region
  Gnowangerup wheat bin
  Ongerup town and North Ongerup, 2km E of Ongerup
  Salmon Gums, 1km E on Salmon Gums East Rd, and Salmon Gums Golf Course
  Moora town and 6km S of Moora on the Moora-Bindoon Rd

Benchmark Description

Successful seedling establishment is thought to be more likely following a major disturbance such as fire, flood, drought, a severe storm or clear felling (Yates et al.). McQuoid observed that patches of E. salmonophloia appear to regenerate in favourable places such as ash beds and moist spots which provide necessary resources. He also observed E. salmonophloia seeding onto receptive surfaces such as rough gravelly soils and moist weed-free surfaces.

Recent work has shown a severe decline in the quality and quantity of seed produced in fragmented stands in the central Wheatbelt; this is likely to be due to the lack of genetic viability from loss of connectivity and decreased effect of pollinators (McQuoid).

Under nursery conditions, higher rates of germination have been recorded with seeds that have been stored below 17oC for several days (Chippendale).

Successional Stages

After disturbance, regeneration may be dense and/or include a significant shrubby understorey. Trees are relatively sparse when the woodlands are mature (more than 350 years old), often with an open understorey of perennial grasses and long lived shrubs, including saltbush (McQuoid).

Old Growth

Chippendale states that trunks may be up to 1m diameter and heights may be (now rarely) up to 30m with a bole (trunk below first branches) of up to 15m.


Fallen and rotten logs are often a feature of mature open woodlands.